Main Article Content
This study examines the aim and strategies of the Nigerian Civil War 1967-1970 and, emphasizes the diplomatic positions and war strategies adopted by the two sides (Federal Government and Biafra secessionist) involved. It agrees that series of researches have been carried out as regards the Nigerian Civil War but only a few viewed it on the ground of diplomatic maneuvering and strategy. The various literatures laid more emphasis on the causes, dimensions and effects of the war without a thorough analogy on the use of tact and strategy in the context of the war. The study also examines the use of propaganda, military tact, media, peace talks and summits in the context of the Nigerian civil war. This study is divided into two parts; the use of strategies by the Nigerian government and the Biafra people, as well as the peace talks and summits that took place during the war. Both primary and secondary sources of data are employed in this research.
Akinyemi, A. B., (1972) The British Press and the Nigerian Civil War. Oxford University Press, African Affairs, Vol. 71, No. 285
Akanmu, Abdullahi Abdulfatai (2020). Nation and State. Britain International of Humanities and Social Sciences (BIoHS) Journal, 2(2), 603-612. https://doi.org/10.33258/biohs.v2i2.273
Akpan, Ntieyong U. (1971) The Struggle for Secession, 1966-1970: A Personal Account of the Nigerian Civil War (London: Frank Cass, 1971), p. 90.
Aremu, J. O., & Osadola, O. S. (2018). The Organization of African Unity and Its Mediatory Role in the Nigeria Civil War: A Historical Assessment. International Journal of Research, 5(15), 214-238.
Cervenka, Zdenek (1973) A History of the Nigerian War, 1967-1970 (Ibadan: Onibonje Publishers,)
Clausewitz, C. V., (1976) On War, Princeton University Press Princeton, New Jersey,
Cronje, Suzanne (1972) The World and Nigeria: The Diplomatic History of the Biafran War, 1967-1970 (London: Sidgwick & Jackson,).
Doron, R. S. (2011) “Forging a Nation while losing a Country: Igbo Nationalism, Ethnicity and Propaganda in the Nigerian Civil War 1968-1970”, A dissertation supervised by Toyin Falola, The University of Texas, Austin, p. 145
Emah, G. S, and Osadola, O. S, (2021) The Indifferent Attitude of The Ibibio to The Biafran Enterprise in The Context of The Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970, International Journal of History and Philosophical Research 9 (03),
Emina, Kemi Anthony (2020). Ethno-Religious Conflict and the Quest for Peace in a Plural Society in Africa. Britain International of Humanities and Social Sciences (BIoHS) Journal, 2(2), 613-622. https://doi.org/10.33258/biohs.v2i2.292
Forsyth, Frederick (1977) The Making of an African Legend: The Biafra Story (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd.,)
Johnson, James T. (1981) Just War Tradition and the Restraint of War: A Moral and Political Inquiry (Princeton: Princeton University Press,)
Korieh, C. J. (2013). Biafra and the discourse on the Igbo Genocide. Journal of Asian and African Studies, 48(6), 727-740.
Madiebo, Alexander (1980) The Nigerian Revolution and the Biafran War (Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishers,)
Mbaya, P. (1999) Biafra, Civil war and Genocide, (Syracuse: Syracruse publishers,), p.23.
Momoh, H. B. (2000) (ed.), The Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970: History and Reminiscent, Ibadan: Sam Bookman Publishers,
Morgenthau, H. J., (1993) Politics among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. USA: Donnelley & Sons Company.
NAE/XX65/1968/2216 "Nigeria's Civil War: Hate, Hunger and the Will to Survive," Time Newspaper, August 23 1968. Retrieved from Nation Archive Enugu, 15th August, 2018
NAE/XX76/1968/ 345 “Open letter from H. W. Bernhardt to John Cordle 24 Dec, 1969” Releases. 25 June, 1968. Retrieved from Nation Archive Enugu, 15th August, 2018
National Archives Enugu, (1967) CW/A/20/CP/X9/CW21/4, Introducing Biafra, (Vol. 1.) , pp 6-26.
Njoku. Hilary M. A. (1987) Tragedy Without Heroes: The Nigeria-Biafra War. Enugu: Fourth Dimension,
Obasanjo, Olusegun (1980) My Command: An Account of the Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970 (Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.,), p. 16.
Okocha, Emma (1994) Blood on the Niger: An Untold Story of the Nigerian Civil War, Port Harcourt: Sunray Publications Ltd.,
Oluleye, J., (1985) Military Leadership in Nigeria 1966-1979 (Ibadan: Ibadan University Press,)
Osadola, O. S. (2012a). Diplomacy in the Context of the Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970). Available at SSRN 2151714.
Osadola, O. S. (2012b). A historical analysis of ethnic conflict in Nigeria. Research Paper (Postgraduate).
Oyewale, P. O., & Osadola, O. S. (2018). Military regimes and Nigeria’s economic development, 1966-1999. Journal of Social Economics Research, 5(1), 29-38.
Schelling, Thomas (1966) Arms and Influence (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press),
Smock, Donald (1991) “Conflict Resolution in Africa: The Mediation of Africa's Wars,” Paper delivered at the 1991 Annual Meeting of the America Political Science Association, Washington, D.C.,
Stremlau, John J., (1977) The International Politics of the Nigerian Civil War, 1967-1970 (Princeton: Princeton University Press,)
Uche, L. U. (1985) The Politics of Nigeria’s Radio Broadcast Industry: 1932-1983. Gazette (Leiden, Netherlands; 35(1))
Ukpabi, Samuel (1992) “White Soldiers, Mosquitoes and the Whitman’s Grave” Nigerian Defence Academy Journal, (Vol. 2,), 78.
Umoh, Ubong Essien (2011) “The Making of Arms in Civil War Biafra”, The Calabar Historical Journal, Vol. 5, Nos. 1&2, December, pp. 339-359.
Uwechue, Raph (1971) Reflections on the Nigerian Civil War: Facing the Future (Britain: Meier & Holmes Ltd.,).
Walzer, Michael, (1977) Just and Unjust Wars. A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations (New York: Harper Torchbooks,).