The 2019 General Election and the Transparency Question in Nigeria: Political Party Financing As the Bane of Youth Participation
Election is perceived as the most peaceful means of power transfer in a democratic setting. It enables for competitive struggles to secure power in a prescribed rule of the game constitutionally. Nigeria is a democratic state currently undergoing its longest democratic transition unprecedented in the history of the country where six consecutive uninterrupted General Elections were conducted. However, the major issue of concern with Nigeria’s democratisation is youth participation and exclusion from politics. A major factor behind the marginalisation of youth is linked to the transparency question in terms of party financing and money politics. This study examined critically how the process of party financing excluded Nigeria’s youth from participating in the 2019 General Election. The study used a qualitative case study method. Data were gathered from primary and secondary sources. The primary sources included an in-depth interview with relevant stakeholders in the field, direct participant observation and consultation of government’s primary documents. The secondary sources were books, journals, newspapers, reports from organisations and agencies and internet sources. The data collected were discussed and interpreted using statistical techniques of tables, charts and a model. The work discovered that youth were barred from participating in Nigeria’s 2019 General Election in terms of contesting and winning of elective seats emanating from heavy use of money in party financing and campaign expenditure. The study thus, recommends that the viable alternative for youth to participate in Nigerian politics actively is to establish parties and lower the cost of obtaining party nomination and contest.
Abdullahi, Y.A. (2010). The Holy Quran: Translation, 6th Edition. London: Krause Books.
Adejumobi, S. (2015). “Democratic Renewal in Africa: Trends and Lessons Learned”, in Adejumobi, S. (Ed.) Democratic Renewal in Africa, pp. 1-20. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Adekeye, M.A. (2017). “Party Primaries, Candidate Selection and Intra-Party Conflict in Nigeria: PDP in Perspective. Covenant University Journal of Politics and International Affairs. 5(1), 22-39.
Aghara, V., Nwaizugbo, I., Chukwuemeka, E., & Onyeizugbe, C. (2015). “Changing Perspectives in Politics Marketing in Nigeria”. Review of Business and Finance Studies, 6(2), 105-115.
Alexander, H.E. (1989). Comparative Political Finance in the 1980s. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Aspinall, E. (2019). “Jokowi, Masalah Ketidakmerataan dan Demokrasi di Indonesia”. Siasat: Journal of Religion, Social, Cultural and Political Sciences. 4(4), 9-14.
Buttorff, G.J. (2019). Authoritarian Elections and Opposition Groups in the Arab World. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Bryan, S., & Baer, D. (2005). Money in Politics: A Study of Party Financing Practices in 22 Countries. Washington: The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs.
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, Quantitative & Mixed Methods Approaches. California, USA: Sage Publication.
European Union (2019). European Union Election Observation Mission: Final Report. Abuja: EU.
Falguera, E., Jones, S., & Ohman, M. (2014). Funding of Political Parties and Election Campaigns: A Handbook on Political Finance. Stockholm: Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
Federal Government of Nigeria. (1999). Nigerian 1999 Constitution as Amended. Abuja, Nigeria: Federal Government Publication.
Federal Government of Nigeria and Independent National Electoral Commission. (2010). Electoral Act 2010. Abuja, Nigeria: INEC.
Ferguson, M. (1995). Golden Rule: The Investment Theory of Party Competition and the Logic of Money-Driven Political Systems. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Hutagalung, D. (2019). “Demokrasi dan Sisi Gelapnya: Pengalaman dari Eropa, Afrika, Asia dan Amerika Latin”. Siasat, Journal of Religion, Social, Cultural and Political Sciences. 4(4), 40-45.
Ibezim, E.A.C. (2019). “The Philosophy of Youth Inclusion in Nigerian Politics: Trends, Challenges and Prospects. Journal of Religion and Human Relations. 11(1), 119-136.
Independent National Electoral Commission. (2005). Political Party Finance Handbook. Abuja, Nigeria: INEC Publication.
Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (2015). Funding of Political Parties and Election Campaign: A Handbook of Political Finance. Stockholm, Sweden: International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance.
Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (2016). The State of Political Finance Regulations in Africa. Stockholm: IDEA.
Khokhar, T. (2017). How is the World Youth Population Changing? World Bank. Retrieved from https://blogs.worldbank.org/opendata/chart-how-worlds-youth-population-changing.
La Raja, R. (2008). Small Change: Money, Political Parties, and Campaign Finance Reform. Michigan: Michigan University Press.
Lawal, S. M. (2015). “An appraisal of corruption in the Nigeria Electoral System”. European Scientific Journal. 11(25), 1-18.
Lawal, M. (2018). FACT CHECK: How Much do the APC, PDP Nomination Forms Actually Cost? Retrieved from https://www.legit.ng/1190547-fact-check-how-apc-pdp-nomination-forms-cost.html.
Lune, H & Berg, L. (2017) Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited.
Mbah, F. (2018). Nigeria: Growing Demand for Youth Inclusion in Politics. Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2018/08/nigeria-growing-demand-youth-inclusion-politics-180809084233452.html.
Mosca, G. (1939). The Ruling Class. Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
Olorunmola, A. (2016). Cost of politics in Nigeria. Abuja, Nigeria: Westminster Foundation for Democracy.
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (2013). Background Paper. Money in Politics: Sound Political Competition in Government. Paris: OECD.
Ortega, Y.G. (1932). The Revolt of Masses. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc.
Page, M.T., & Tayo, S. (2018). Countdown to February 2019 a Look Ahead at Nigeria’s Election. London: Chatham House, the Royal Institute of International Affairs.
Piccio, D.R., & Van Biezen, I. (2018). Political Finance and the Cartel Party Thesis. In Mendilow, J & Phelippeau, E. (Eds.) Political Party Funding, pp.68-83. Cheltelham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.
Michel, R. (1949). First Lectures in Political Sociology. New York: Harper TouchBook.
Scott, J. (2006). Social Research and Documentary Sources. In J. Scott (Ed.), Documentary Research (Vol. 1, pp. 23-79). London, England: Sage Publication.
Sharan, M. P. (2009). Qualitative research method. San Francisco, USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Shrivastava, A. (2015). Theory of Transparency: The Right to Know. California, USA:
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies: Bepress Limited.
Simons, H. (2014). Case Study Research: In-depth Understanding in Context. In P. Leavy (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Qualitative Research (pp. 455-470). New York, USA: Oxford University Press.
Sloam, J., & Henn, M. (2019). YOUTHQUAKE 2017: The Rise of Young Cosmopolitan in Britain. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Smith, S.B. (2015). Chance, Strategy, and Choice: An Introduction to the Mathematics of Games and Elections. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sule, B., Azizuddin, M.S.M. & Mat, B. (2017). “Political Party Financing and Corruption in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic: The Case of 2015 General Election”. Arts and Social Sciences Journal 8(4), 2-8.
Sule, B., Azizuddin, M.S.M., Mat, B. (2017). “Political Behaviour and Voting Pattern in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic: The Case of 2015 Presidential Election”. Asia Pacific Journal of Education Arts and Sciences 4(4), 1-13.
Sule, B., Azizuddin, M.S.M, and Mat, B. (2017). “Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) and Campaign Financing Monitoring in Nigeria: The 2015 General Election”. Journal of International Studies 13(1), 15-31.
Sule, B. (2018). Political Party Financing and Election Reformations in Nigeria’s 2015 General Election: Issues and Impacts. PhD Thesis submitted to the School of International Studies, College of Law Government and International Studies, Ghazali Shafie Graduate School of Government, Universiti Utara Malaysia.
Sule, B., Azizuddin, M.S.M., Mat, B. (2018). “Impact of Political Party Financing on Integrity of 2015 General Election in Nigeria”. Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 22(2), 165-218.
Sule, B., Azizuddin, M.S.M., Mat, B. (2018). “Corruption and Electoral Process in Nigeria: Examining the 2015 General Election”. Journal of Technosocial. 10(1), 1-16.
Sule, B. (2019). “Money Politics and Party Primaries in Nigeria’s Preparation Towards the 2019 General Election: The All Progressives Congress (APC) and Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) in Focus”. 7th Annual International Conference on Social Injustice. Sociology and Criminal Justice Department, Virginia State University.
Sule, B. (2019). “The 2019 Presidential Election in Nigeria: An Analysis of the Voting Pattern, Issues and Impacts”. Geografia Malaysian Journal of Society and Space. 15(2), 129-140.
Sule, B., Mat, B., Azizuddin, M.S.M. & Ibrahim, S.Y. (2019). “Sources of Political Parties Campaign Expenditure in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic: Examining the 2015 General Election”. In International Area Studies Review. 22(3), 1-22.
Sule, B., Adamu, U., & Sambo, U. (2020). “The 2019 General Election: Examining the Issues, Challenges, Successes and Lessons for Future General Elections. International Journal of Social Sciences Perspectives. 6(2), 100-113.
Tekindal, M. (2016). “The Position of the Youth in Political Participation”. Sosyal Politika Calismari Dergisi. 17(39), 119-140.
Transparency International (2015). Corruption Perception Index: Transparency International Report. Retrieved on 29th December, 2017 from https://www.transparency.org/cpi2015.
United Nations (2018). World Youth Report: Youth and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Washington: United Nations.
United Nations Development Programme (2018). Promise or Peril? Africa’s 830 million Youth by 2050. Washington: United Nations.
Verjee, A., Kwaja, C., & Onubogu, O. (2019) Nigeria’s 2019 Election: Change, Continuity and the Risk to Peace. Washington: United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved from www.usip.org.
Vilfredo Pareto (1939). The Mind and Society. United States of America: Harcourt Brace and Company INC.
Walecki, D. M. (2003). Political money and political corruption: Considerations for Nigeria INEC Civil Society Forum. Abuja, Nigeria: USAID Publication.
Walecki, M. (2015). Public Funding in Established and Transitional Democracies. In
Walecki, M., Casas-Zamora, K., Genckaya, O., Ammar, D., Sarkis-Hanna, C., Ekmekji-Boladian, K. & Elobaid, E.A. (Eds.) Public Funding Solutions for Political Parties in Muslim-Majority Parties, pp.25-38. Washington: International Foundation for Electoral Systems.
Walecki, M. (2017). Political Parties and Political Corruption. Stockholm: Organisation for Cooperation in Europe.
Williams, R. (2000). Aspects of Party Finance and Political Corruption. In William, R. (Ed.), Party Finance and Political Corruption, pp.1-14. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wulff, A. (2017). Legal Framework for Political Parties in Selected Countries of Sub-Saharan Africa. Nairobi: Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.
Yadav, V. (2011). Political Parties, Business Groups, and Corruption in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press.
YIAGA AFRICA (2019). Statement on the 2019 Presidential Election Results. Retrieved from https://www.yiaga.org/yiaga-africa-watching-the-vote-statement-on-the-2019-presidential-election-results/.