The Social Safety Nets and Poverty Alleviation in Pakistan: An Evaluation of Livelihood Enhancement and Protection Programme
Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 1 intends to end poverty of all forms and the government of Pakistan is also targeting poverty alleviation through social safety nets. ‘Ehsaas’ is the major social safety nets proramme which include various initiatives that are benefiting millions of households. The study examines the state of poverty in Pakistan and also highlights the spending under each social safety net. Furthermore, the study also evaluates the Livelihood Enhancement and Protection (LEP) programme which is a major initiative for poverty alleviation under Ehsaas programme. Survey in Khyber Pakhtunkhawa and Balochistan provinces were conducted of those beneficiaries who are getting asset and skills training. It was found that asset provision and skills trainings are helpful in increasing the earnings and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities to poor households.
ADB. (2002). Poverty in Pakistan: Issues, causes and institutional response. Asian Development Bank.
Ahmed V., and Donoghue, C. (2010). Case Study: Global economic crisis and poverty in Pakistan. International Journal of Microsimulation (2010) 3(1) 127-129.
Ahmed, A., and Zeshan, M. (2014). An analysis of the social impact of the stipend program for secondary school girls of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Education Research for Policy and Practice (2014) 13:129–143.
Ahmed, A., Rabbani, M., Sulaiman, M., and Das, N. (2009). The impact of asset transfer on livelihoods of the ultra-poor in Bangladesh. Research Monograph Series No. 39.
Ahmed, V., and Javed, A. (2016). National study on agriculture investment in Pakistan. Working Paper No. 157, Sustainable Development Policy Institute.
Ashraf, M. A. (2017). Poverty and its Alleviation: The case of Pakistan’, in G. Staicu (ed.), Poverty, Inequality and Policy, IntechOpen
Babayo Sule, & Usman Sambo. (2020). Poverty in Gombe State: Causes, Manifestations and Strategies of Alleviation. Britain International of Humanities and Social Sciences (BIoHS) Journal, 2(3), 706-720.
Carter, M.R. and May, J. (2001). One kind of freedom: poverty dynamics in post-apartheid South Africa. World Development, 29 (12), pp. 1987–2006.
Cecchini, S., & Madariaga, A. (2011). Conditional cash transfer programmes: The recent experience in Latin America and the Caribbean. Chile: Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean.
Fiszbein, A, Schady, N., Ferreira, F. H.G., Grosh, M., Keleher, N., Olinto, P., & Skoufias, E. (2009). Conditional cash transfers: reducing present and future poverty (English). Washington, DC: World Bank.
Fultz, E., & Francis, J. (2013). Cash transfer programmes, poverty reduction and empowerment of women: A comparative analysis. Experiences from Brazil, Chile, India, Mexico and South Africa. Geneva: International Labour Office.
Haque, N., Ahmed, V., and Sana, S. (2011). Reforms for competitive markets in Pakistan. Munich Personal RePEc Archive.
Hoddinott J. (2008). Social safety nets and productivity enhancing investments in agriculture. Paper prepared for the international conference on Convergence between social services provision and productivity enhancing investments. Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
Holmes, R., & Jones, N. (2013). Gender and social protection in the developing world, beyond mothers and safety nets. London: Zed Books.
Ishfaq, Sadia; Ahmed, Vaqar; Hassan, Danish; Javed, Asif. (2017). Internal Migration and Labour Mobility in Pakistan. Sustainable Development Policy Institute.
İşleyen, Şakir, & Amir Khaleel Hassoo. (2020). The Impact of the University in Increasing the Book Reading on Students: Case Study Soran University. SIASAT, 5(4), 51-58. https://doi.org/10.33258/siasat.v5i4.70
Javed, A. (2020a). Impact of COVID-19 on Pakistan’s services sector. Jurnal Inovasi Ekonomi, Vol. 5, No. 3
Javed A (2020b). Economic Impact of Coronavirus and Revival Measures: Way Forward for Pakistan. Policy Review, Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SDPI)
Javed A. (2020c). Prospects and Problems for E-commerce in Pakistan. Asian Journal of Economics, Finance and Management, Vol. 2, Issue 4
Javed A. (2020d). Youth Development in Pakistan: A Provincial Analysis” Journal of Development, Policy Research & Practice, Vols. 3 & 4, pp. 117-139
Javed, A. (2020e). The Scope of Information and Communication Technology Enabled Services in Promoting Pakistan Economy. Asian Journal of Economics, Finance and Management, Vol. 2, Issue 4.
Javed, A. (2019). Pakistan’s Agriculture Trade with South Asia. Munich Personal RePec Archive (MPRA), Paper No. 95729.
Javed, A., 2019. South Asia’s Services Trade: Barriers and Prospects for Integration. International Journal of Management, Accounting and Economics Vol. 6, No. 10.
Khan, A. (2013). Institutional Mapping Study of Social Protection Schemes in the Province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, ILO Country office for Pakistan, Islamabad.
Khan, Anam; Javed, Asif; Batool, Samavia; Hussain, Fazal; Mahmood, Hamid; Ahmed, Vaqar. (2016). The role of youth in sustainable development: Perspectives from South Asia. Sustainable Development Policy Institute.
Krishna, A., Poghosyan, M., and Das, N. (2014). How much can asset transfers help the poorest? Evaluating the results of brac's ultra-poor programme (2002–2008). The Journal of Development Studies, 48:2, 254-267.
Korea, M, D. (2020). Educational Counseling Programs for Students with Disabilities during the Pandemic. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute.
Manzoor, R., Toru, S., and Ahmed, V. (2016). Legislative Gaps in Implementation of Health-related Millennium Development Goals: a case study from Pakistan. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association.
McKenzie, D. J., & Woodruff, C. (2006). Do entry costs provide an empirical basis for poverty traps? Evidence from Mexican microenterprises. Economic Development and CulturalChange, 55(1), 3–42.
Nasim, A. (2014). Fiscal Space for Social Protection in Pakistan. Institute of Development and Economic Alternatives, Policy working paper no. 01-14.
OPM (2020). Benazir Income Support Programme: Evaluation Report. Oxford Policy Management.
OPM. (2016). Impact report BISP programmes. Oxford Policy Management.
PPAF. (2014). Investigate study on livelihood projects. Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund, Final Report, November 2014.
Richardson, M., Tsui, J., Nazir, A., Ahmed, V. (2017). Activist to entrepreneur: The role of social enterprise in supporting women's empowerment in Pakistan. Sustainable Development Policy Institute.
Selvaraj, A. (2011). An overview of poverty eradication programmes in India. Economic Affair: v.56 n.4 p. 335-343.
ShuHong, Y., Din, M. and Ranjha, K. (2017). Social protection schemes in Pakistan: an assessment of existing program. Academic Journal of Business, Administration, Law and Social Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 2.
Tabassum, R., Manzoor, R., Ahmed, V., Zahid, J., Waleed, I., and Saleem, M. (2019). Integrating Gender into Educational Planning and Budgeting. Sustainable Development Policy Institute, Working Paper No. 171.
Wallenborn, M. (2009). Skills development for poverty reduction (SDPR): The case of Tajikistan. International Journal of Education Development.
Weber, B., Edwards, M., and Duncan, G. (2004). Single mother work and poverty under welfare reform: Are policy impacts different in rural areas? Eastern Economic Journal, 30(1):31-51.